Vision of Humanity
The average level of global peacefulness improved very slightly in 2019, for the first time in five years, on the 2019 GPI. [However,] the average level of global peacefulness has deteriorated by 3.78 per cent since 2008. Over that period, 81 countries deteriorated in peacefulness, while 81 improved.
The global economic impact of violence improved for the first time since 2012, decreasing by 3.3 per cent or $475 billion from 2017 to 2018. The improvement in the global economic impact of violence is largely due to the decrease in the impact of Armed Conflict particularly in Iraq, Colombia and Ukraine, where the impact of Armed Conflict decreased by 29 per cent to $672 billion in 2017. The global economic impact of violence was $14.1 trillion PPP [ a measure of GDP which takes account of differences in the purchasing power of various currencies; see Wikipedia] in 2018, equivalent to 11.2 per cent of global GDP or $1,853 per person. Syria, Afghanistan and the Central African Republic incurred the largest economic cost of violence in 2018 as a percentage of their GDP, equivalent to 67, 47 and 42 per cent of GDP, respectively. In the ten countries most affected by violence, the average economic cost was equivalent to 35 per cent of GDP, compared to 3.3 per cent in the ten least affected.
The gap between the least and most peaceful countries continues to grow. Since 2008, the 25 least peaceful countries declined on average by 11 per cent, while the 25 most peaceful countries improved by 1.8 per cent on average. Conflict in the Middle East has been the key driver of the global deterioration in peacefulness. The indicator with the most widespread deterioration globally was the terrorism impact indicator. Just over 63 per cent of countries recorded increased levels of terrorist activity. However, the number of deaths from terrorism has been falling globally since 2014.
An estimated 971 million people live in areas with high or very high climate change exposure [where climate change issues such as water scarcity can increase the probability of conflict], . Of this number, 400 million (41 per cent) reside in countries with already low levels of peacefulness.
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