Category Archives: Measuring oppression and exploitation

This section presents measurements of the  types of harm included in our website.  It will show how various types of harm (and a few concepts related to harm)  have been measured.  They do not have the same methodology by any means. This section will only give an approximate idea of harm and its components, one that certainly could be refined and discussed. What will emerge is at least a first look at the issue and a better perspective on its importance.

 

Measuring Harm 2022

Report: Hunger reached record high in 2021, may worsen in 2022 Rumbi Chakamba Devex May 5, 2022
The 2022 “Global Report on Food Crises,” compiled by the Global Network Against Food Crises — an international alliance that includes the European Union, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the World Food Program — found that around 193 million people were acutely food-insecure and in need of urgent assistance across 53 countries and territories in 2021. That’s an increase of nearly 40 million people from 2020. Of most concern are the 570,000 people facing starvation and death levels of hunger in Ethiopia, South Sudan, Southern Madagascar, and Yemen. 

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IMF: Fossil fuel subsidies $5.9 trillion or 6.8 percent of GDP in 2020

Still not getting energy prices right: A global and country update of fossil fuel subsidies Ian Parry, Simon Black, Nate Vernon International Monetary Fund September 24, 2021
Globally, fossil fuel subsidies were $5.9 trillion in 2020 or about 6.8 percent of GDP, and are expected to rise to 7.4 percent of GDP in 2025. Just 8 percent of the 2020 subsidy reflects undercharging for supply costs (explicit subsidies) and 92 percent for undercharging for environmental costs and foregone consumption taxes (implicit subsidies). Efficient fuel pricing in 2025 would reduce global carbon dioxide emissions 36 percent below baseline levels, which is in line with keeping global warming to 1.5 degrees, while raising revenues worth 3.8 percent of global GDP and preventing 0.9 million local air pollution deaths.

Organized violence 1989-2020

Organized violence 1989-2020, with a special emphasis on Syria Therése Pettersson Shawn Davies, Amber Deniz Journal of Peace Research July 1, 2021
This article reports on trends in organized violence, building on new data by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP). The falling trend in fatalities stemming from organized violence in the world, observed for five consecutive years, broke upwards in 2020 and deaths in organized violence seem to have settled on a high plateau. UCDP registered more than 80,100 deaths in organized violence in 2020, compared to 76,300 in 2019. The decrease in violence in Afghanistan and Syria was countered by escalating conflicts in, for example, Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh), Azerbaijan and Tigray, Ethiopia. Moreover, the call for a global ceasefire following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic failed to produce any results. In fact, the number of active state-based and non-state conflicts, as well as the number of actors carrying out one-sided violence against civilians, increased when compared to 2019. UCDP noted a record-high number of 56 state-based conflicts in 2020, including eight wars. Most of the conflicts occurred in Africa, as the region registered 30 state-based conflicts, including nine new or restarted ones.

Global trends in violence against women journalists

The chilling: Global trends in violence against women journalists UNESCO November 1, 2021 5
There is nothing virtual about online violence. It has become the new frontline in journalism safety – and women journalists sit at the epicentre of risk. Networked misogyny and gaslighting intersect with racism, religious bigotry, homophobia and other forms of discrimination to threaten women journalists – severely and disproportionately. Threats of sexual violence and murder are frequent and sometimes extended to their families. This phenomenon is also bound up with the rise of viral disinformation, digital conspiracy networks and political polarisation. The psychological, physical, professional, and digital safety and security impacts associated with this escalating freedom of expression and gender equality crisis are overlapping, converging and frequently inseparable. They are also increasingly spilling offline, sometimes with devastating consequences.Here, we present an edited extract from a major interdisciplinary study produced by the International Center for Journalists (ICFJ) under commission from UNESCO.