Category Archives: Discrimination: race – gender – ethnic – religious – class

These various forms of discrimination are barriers to entry into the higher income levels of a productive + harmful society, which benefit from unproductive sources of income. Discrimination can arise when people are of a different race, gender, ethnicity, nationality or religion. An important manifestation is racism, sexism, or other strong prejudice against a given group.

The way such discriminatory barriers to entry work is to limit access to worthwhile employment, as well as other social advantages such as education, the ability to marry outside of one’s class or group and the transmission of wealth.  Discrimination is a type of unproductive activity that obtains income by restricting the productive opportunities and income of others, and also limits access to the elite group that receives such income.  Barriers to entry have also been discussed in heterodox economics and sociology using the terms stratification economics, social closure, opportunity hoarding,  categorical inequality, and ascriptive inequality.  For further reading, see Edward G. Grabb, Theories of Social Inequality.

Also see Discrimination against women — gender inequality.

George Floyd protests – Black Lives Matter

We reviewed police tactics seen in nearly 400 protest videos. Here’s what we found. Talia Buford, Lucas Waldron, Moiz Syed, and Al Shaw ProPublica July 16, 2020
We asked experts to watch videos showing officers using tear gas, pepper balls and explosives on protesters. Police actions often escalated confrontations.

N.Y.P.D. says it used restraint during protests. Here’s what the videos show. Allison McCann, Blacki Migliozzi, Andy Newman, Larry Buchanan and Aaron Byrd New York Times July 14, 2020

Think racial segregation is over? Here’s how the police still enforce it. Nikita Lalwani and Mitchell Johnston Washington Post July 1, 2020
We interviewed Monica Bell about her important new paper

Europe said U.S. influence had waned under Trump. Then Black Lives Matter protests rocked the continent. Michael Birnbaum Washington Post June 15, 2020

Milley apologizes for role in Trump photo op: ‘I Should Not Have Been There’ Helene Cooper New York Times June 11, 2020
President Trump’s walk across Lafayette Square, current and former military leaders say, has started a moment of reckoning in the military.

Protesters throng D.C., vowing to be heard after George Floyd’s death Samantha Schmidt, Jessica Contrera, Rebecca Tan, Hannah Natanson and John Woodrow Cox Washington Post June 7, 2020

Pentagon ordered National Guard helicopters’ aggressive response in D.C. Thomas Gibbons-Neff and Eric Schmitt New York Times June 6, 2020
The high-profile episode, after days of protests in Washington, was a turning point in the military’s response to unrest in the city.

The Floyd protests are the broadest in U.S. history — and are spreading to white, small-town America Lara Putnam, Erica Chenoweth and Jeremy Pressman Washington Post June 5, 2020