Category Archives: Discrimination: race – gender – ethnic – religious – class

These various forms of discrimination are barriers to entry into the higher income levels of a productive + harmful society, which benefit from unproductive sources of income. Discrimination can arise when people are of a different race, gender, ethnicity, nationality or religion. An important manifestation is racism, sexism, or other strong prejudice against a given group.

The way such discriminatory barriers to entry work is to limit access to worthwhile employment, as well as other social advantages such as education, the ability to marry outside of one’s class or group and the transmission of wealth.  Discrimination is a type of unproductive activity that obtains income by restricting the productive opportunities and income of others, and also limits access to the elite group that receives such income.  Barriers to entry have also been discussed in heterodox economics and sociology using the terms stratification economics, social closure, opportunity hoarding,  categorical inequality, and ascriptive inequality.  For further reading, see Edward G. Grabb, Theories of Social Inequality.

Also see Discrimination against women — gender inequality.

Discrimination 2021

America’s 50,000 monuments: More mermaids than congresswomen, more Confederates than abolitionists Gillian Brockell Washington Post October 6, 2021
Of the men on the top 50 list, more than half were enslavers. Twelve were generals, 11 presidents and four Catholic saints or missionaries. Four were leaders of the Confederacy. Three men in the top 50 are men of color: King, Tecumseh and Frederick Douglass.

Charles W. Mills, philosopher of race and liberalism, dies at 70 Clay Risen New York Times September 27, 2021
He argued that white supremacy was a feature of the Western political tradition, and that racism represented a political system as intentional as liberal democracy.

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Review of Property, Institutions and Social Stratification in Africa by Franklin Obeng-Odoom

Cover of Property, Institutions and Social Stratification in Africa by Franklin Obeng-Odoom
Cover of Property, Institutions and Social Stratification in Africa by Franklin Obeng-Odoom

From inequality to stratification: Obeng-Odoom’s contribution to the study of inequality in Africa Reviewed by Abdallah Zouache African Review of Economics and Finance Vol. 12 (1) 2020 (8 page PDF file)

Review of The Rise and Decline of Patriarchal Systems by Nancy Folbre

Cover of The Rise and Decline of Patriarchal Systems Credit Verso Books.

Necessity is the mother of coalition: On Nancy Folbre Jayati Ghosh Verso Books March 1, 2020 Jayati Ghosh discusses Folbre’s new book, The Rise and Decline of Patriarchal Systems, and the argument for an intersectional political economy.